The rich cultural tradition of Tilos is directly connected to its history. Samples of Tilos civilization are its ancient and Byzantine monuments, the castles, the caves, the churches, the monasteries and the rare icons and hagiographies. Specifically, during the Byzantine era, strong artistic creativity was developed in ecclesiastical activity. The excavations of the skeletons of pygmy elephants dating back to 4,500 BC in Charkadio cave are considered a very important fact.
The island flourished during the Classical era, during which it had its own mint and it was known for its fine-spun clothes and its perfumes.
Tilos was the birthplace of the ancient poet Irinna, contemporary of Sapfo, who became inspired by the natural beauty of the island, its aromas, its vegetation and its calmness. Through her poetry in praise of Tilos, she passed on to us the most noble of human values.
Finally, the oppressors Lelon and Leron, the establishers of Big Greece, came from Tilos.